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White papers

Achieving Centimeter Level Performance with Low Cost Antennas (PDF)
In this white paper, u‑blox shows how inexpensive patch antennas can be used to achieve centimeter‑level accuracies using the u‑blox NEO‑M8P receiver. The study identifies critical design information about the antennas and their operating environment, which can be used to gain maximum performance from the system. In particular, we show that it is essential that patch antennas are used with an appropriate ground plane. Ground planes can mitigate multipath effects to a level where the patch antenna performance can reach that of survey‑grade antennas.

Short range low power wireless devices and Internet of Things (IoT) (PDF)
This paper discusses the topic of the “last 100 meters connectivity” in systems where small devices (such as various sensors) are connected to services on a wide‑area Internet network. Subject matters covered are the requirements on the “last 100 meters connectivity” vision as well as what wireless technologies would be suitable for future Internet of Things (IoT) use cases. This paper also presents the background to why u‑blox envisions the “last 100 meters connectivity” is an important factor in the area of IoT and u‑blox’ view on the impact of IoT in general.

Use case possibilities with Bluetooth low energy in IoT applications (PDF)
With yearly shipments of more than 10 billion microcontrollers that all can exchange information locally or through the Internet, a huge variety of so called “intelligent devices” are enabled. All these devices can be accessed over the Internet and this evolution is commonly referred to as Internet of Things (IoT). IoT typically requires a local low power wireless connection along with the Internet connection. This whitepaper describes how a smartphone or tablet can be used in IoT as well as how Bluetooth low energy technology works and how it can be used to connect devices to Internet‑based services and applications.

u‑blox GNSS antenna modules: global positioning made easy (PDF)
As more and more products and devices integrate global positioning as a standard feature, a performance optimized “GNSS antenna module” which combines both satellite receiver chip and antenna on the same module can be a good solution. These modules provide fast time‑to‑market, simplified logistics and an economically viable solution for “instant” satellite positioning. This whitepaper describes the advantages and design aspects of using a GNSS antenna module.

u‑blox Untethered Dead Reckoning (PDF)
UDR is Dead Reckoning without the need for an electrical connection to the car. This enables leading positioning performance with extremely simple device installation, in areas such as navigation, road tolling or fleet management. 

GNSS timing and the rise of small cells (PDF)
Precision timing based on GNSS satellites is a low‑cost, reliable, and ubiquitously available reference time derived from satellite‑hosted atomic clocks. It can be easily implemented in femto, macro and small cell base stations as a primary, secondary, or backup precision timing solution. This whitepaper discusses the requirements and solutions for precision timing reference in Small Cell applications.

M2M service providers and LTE: new revenue opportunities (PDF)
Service providers around the world are spending billions of dollars rolling out new LTE infrastructure. Over 20 operators worldwide have already deployed LTE services including T‑Mobile, China Mobile, AT&T, NTT DoCoMo, Sprint, Telstra, Vodafone and Telefonica. Although new 4G‑enabled mobile phones and tablets are driving the adoption of LTE, new billable services in the M2M sector are already following. This whitepaper examines 12 emerging business models for LTE based applications and services.

LTE – Delivering on the mobile broadband promise (English PDFGerman PDFKorean PDF)
LTE is the latest generation mobile network technology, and the fastest growing standard in telecoms history. With the exponential increase of video‑rich content and remote data storage, LTE has been designed to meet the growing demands of the internet for both human‑to‑human, human‑to‑machine and machine‑to‑machine communications. LTE will accelerate and enhance numerous technology trends including last‑mile connections, multimedia‑rich web applications, security and cloud computing. This whitepaper briefly summarizes the history of mobile data networking, and how LTE’s bandwidth and latency improvements will change the face of the web.

The Rise and Challenges of M2M Applications (PDF)
2013 was the year when machine‑to‑machine (M2M) communications exceeded human‑to‑human communications for the first time in history, with even more machines connected to the Internet than people. Equipping devices with M2M communications has special requirements, however, depending on the application. It is important to consider these features when thinking not only of the initial design, but also about product longevity - how long the device should operate before needing replacement, geographical coverage, and compatibility with wireless network upgrades, 2G to 3G to 4G. This article discusses 12 specific issues that should be considered when designing devices for M2M applications.

u‑blox' GNSS and wireless module philosophy (PDF)
Focus on compatibility and upgradeability: In today’s electronics industry, particularly for industrial machine‑to‑machine (M2M) applications such as fleet and asset management systems, product cycles are short, typically 9 months to a year for each product upgrade cycle, with overall product life‑span lasting up to 10 years. During this time, designers must continuously improve their products to meet emerging new technologies as well as address regional markets beyond the scope of their original design. This creates design challenges, especially when upgrading the positioning and wireless modem components to address new market requirements such as extended GNSS support, as well as compatibility with multiple mobile network standards. This whitepaper examines some of these issues and recommended solutions.

u‑blox' Solution for European eCall (English PDF, Korean PDF)
With the imminent deployment of European eCall in 2015, development of In‑vehicle eCall Systems (IVS) is in full swing. The correct choice of components will have a large affect on time‑to‑market. Important factors to consider are the possibility to verify IVS designs before eCall is deployed, the ability to support design‑in requirements of closely‑coupled GPS and GSM subsystems, comprehensive software support, component‑level certification of the GSM modem, forward compatibility with future wireless technologies, and the availability of automotive‑grade GPS and GSM components in high‑volume. This paper examines these requirements.

Combining the best of UMTS with GPS (PDF)
The combination of mobile communications with global positioning, Internet and multimedia services in small, portable devices has become an accelerating industry trend, particularly for mobile resource management systems, connected automotive navigation systems and handheld consumer products. The result is attractive new location‑based applications and services that were previously impossible with either technology alone: smart, self‑upgrading navigators, sophisticated vehicle and personal trackers, smartphones and tablet PCs with rich multimedia and communications capabilities. This whitepaper highlights some important considerations when combining UMTS connectivity with GPS based on the LISA‑U2 module series.

Hybrid Positioning and CellLocate®  (PDF)
Although GPS is a widespread technology, GPS positioning is not always possible, particularly in shielded environments such as indoors and enclosed park houses, or when a GPS jamming signal is present. The situation can be improved by augmenting GPS receiver data with mobile network cell attributes to provide a level of redundancy that can benefit numerous applications. A hybrid solution making use of this technique has been realized by u‑blox: CellLocate.

Automotive Dead Reckoning: An intelligent solution for modern urban navigation (PDF)
Increasingly dense urban environments pose a significant problem to navigation systems based on the reception of extremely weak GPS satellite signals. As ever more systems (e.g. road pricing, fleet management, emergency services, etc.) depend on reliable, uninterrupted navigation, “Dead Reckoning” GPS is becoming increasingly important.

Use Cases and Regulatory Approvals for Wireless Medical Devices (PDF)
With the advent of wireless technology in medical applications, new possibilities open up for medical diagnostic and monitoring equipment in a hospital, health care facility, or for care in the home environment. Medical device manufacturers need to understand the complex regulatory requirements, which cover several interrelated topics, such as radio/wireless compliance, medical device approval, hazard analysis, quality management and overall product safety.